This document includes all of the participant abstracts from the papers that will be presented at the symposium. There will be seven panels, five in Spanish and two in English.
This article stems from the investigation "Places of the memory. Strengthening of the identity across the collective spaces of Cúcuta's city" financed by the University of Francisco de Paula Santander. It centers on the roll that architecture, art and urbanism fulfill in the construction and strengthening of Colombia in a post-‐agreement scenario, helping the process of reconciliation and recovery of community memory, by means of the materialization of punctual or urban projects that the victims claim, favoring the generation of identity, rooting and territoriality.Key words: Post -‐ agreement, architecture, art, urbanism, and symbolic repair
Reimagine the city is preparing for a post-‐conflict territory. This will allow gradual approach towards reconciliation, towards a post-‐conflict generator of thoughts and changes. Where the dignity and equality are part of a sustainable construction as part of integral human development plan, to find a lasting and stable peace.
Since the research of peace is a right and a duty of each citizen. It becomes a priority that in Colombia must transcend toward a spirit of collective participation in the management of opportunities for all. Trying to reach for peace, implicates being in a state of attention willing to listen to the diverse positions ready for change and do it in a planned and consensus way. From the urban perspective, a town narrated from memory and culture, reconciles human being making this as its environment, also an habitable and friendly place. Where the urban proposals enrich the plural territories, strengthening the social, economic and political development. Focusing on human rights and democracy; in transforming force of a country, to make sure an worthy habitat.
Seen from the perspective of the rights of women, gender and differential, architecture and urbanism have in common with the talks seeking peace agreements, the delay in incorporating the voices of women in their construction processes.
When the focus is on developing peace, cities cannot afford lapses. Of all susceptible to relapse, in terms of (in) justice, they are those who ignore the presence of women, history, legitimate fears, desires, needs and requirements. In the territories women also exist. We are territory. We inhabit differently. War affects us in many ways.
To remember is to recognize in the past traces to avoid replicating horrors and pains, also think, plan, design and implement proposals to achieve a better quality of life. This aims, among other objectives, towards effective reconciliation.
In addition to the call to lay down arms and violence of all kinds-‐in the bodies and territories, streets and housing-‐are on to ensure that spaces are welcoming to women and to create other, own them, while their welfare warrants against discrimination rooted. Are spaces-‐and what happens in them-‐mirror reflection of a peace achieved.
In that sense a look back at architectural events occurring in resilience linked to representative experiences, understand and have found a solution, it is timely in redefining strokes arise only on paper, to light and shadow. Processes from the creative act to strengthen understanding that the design of spaces affects the conditions conducive to aggressive behavior or are mute scenarios adapted everyday scene, broken, interrupted.
We live in an age of global unrest and discontinuity due to social, political and environmental conflicts around the world. Korea has currently remained the only separated nation in the world, having separate ideologies, cultures, and two very distinct different socio-‐economical systems. With this discontinuity, De Militarized Zone, so-‐called DMZ, as a border zone has been considered a third world district with no human interference allowed. The border extending the 248 km long and 4km wide was established in 1953 after the Korean War representing a complex paradox between two divergent territories. The aim of this proposal is to examine the diverse paradoxical conditions of territorial relationships with an architectural ripple in geo-‐political space between North and South Korea and it is to investigate the opportunities and experiences through finding the official way to access and exploring the territory that will create new spatial order, network, and strategy generating the peace and reconciliation. The proposal focuses on a site confronting the most extreme paradoxical complexities found in the archaeological site of Korea’s ancient capital city (Gungye Castle), which is isolated in the middle of DMZ.
As a political and social material, today’s border fence is itself a paradox while it is the only structure that can physically occupy the ground of DMZ generating a 3m wide by 3m high spaces, yet doesn’t officially belong to the DMZ or Korea. Taking its paradoxical characteristic as an opportunity to use the as a new systematic and architectural device occupying the DMZ territory, this proposal uses the double fence to extend and to curate diverse and controlled experiences of visitors and scientists in this historic and extreme site that is currently inaccessible.
Through this complex political, historical, and territorial relationship among the internal (unity: the ancient capital city), transitional (double fence edge), and the external (divided nation) territories, the role of architecture sees this extreme and unstable context as a catalyst to control and mediate the paradoxical complexities, creating a new type of network that will be able to access the extreme politically charged border and expect the positive possibilities in the future. This will provide a platform for the next phase to perform unpredictable opportunities for direct and positive interaction between the divided nations. Eventually, this extreme process of maintaining the idea of border and examining the territorial paradox might be able to contribute to elimination of the extreme tension in DMZ inspiring the peace and reconciliation.
Based on the author’s master of science graduation project, the presentation will discuss how spatial development centered in environmental challenges can play a central role in reconstruction processes in post-‐conflict situations, empowering the most vulnerable and fostering sustainable development in Barranquilla. Particularly, I will emphasize how it creates dialogue that goes beyond environmental issues.
Starting by briefly examining the how the conflict and forced displacement has enhanced a fragile condition where the absence of the state, stagnation and complex borders generate informality, loss of land value and violence. This illustrates how forceful displacement is a major problem for Barranquilla and it augments unplanned and unrestrained urbanization, poverty, segregation and environmental degradation. Much of the displaced population occupies the river and wetland areas, which are a critical factor to pursue an environmental mainstreaming agenda.
The presentation will go through the ambitions and constraints of post-‐conflict processes, found in the literature, in order to identify the possibilities for architecture and urbanism in such processes. Environmental governance is identified as crucial practice in order to align sustainable development and peace-‐making goals. The final part of the presentation explains how in reconstruction processes tackling environmental issues allow architects and urban planners to address economic development and infrastructure challenges, as well as improving the physical conditions of the daily spaces of the segregated communities. It empowers these communities by putting their needs in the development agenda. To illustrate this I will use the case developed in the graduation project for the Public Market of Barranquilla.
A landscape torn by wars and political conflicts on its path of reconciliation and peace building is deeply dependent upon the integrated development of the infrastructure and socio-‐economic dimensions. It has been a time-‐tested formulation that the coming of urbanism transforms a society positively. Popularly referred to as Architecture for peace, this ideology is gaining momentum in conflict-‐struck countries like Israel-‐Palestine, Argentina and Afghanistan. A less known but highly successful experimentation with ‘Architecture for Peace’ is that of Mizoram. A small ethnically diverse state in the Northeastern extreme of India, Mizoram’s history is marred with strife between the different ethnic groups and the government and lives scarred with the fear of death due to insurgency. However, a total change in the urban planning and architectural restructuring of the villages was done under the project called ‘Operation Security’. This Government of India initiative to eliminate insurgency in the state, transformed Mizoram from a conflict struck state to a state with 100% literacy and economic surge. The linear cluster organization and radial road connectivity of the newly structured villages as against the scattered organization led to a coherent linkage amongst different settlements and led to a positive reconciliation of the various tribal settlements. Furthermore, architectural projects were undertaken for the cultural preservation and social reconciliation of the various tribes. Youth organizations, panchayat bodies (local democratic institutions) were formed to supervise these urban planning propositions and integration of everyday urbanism and public spaces for peace building. This paper analyses how urban planning and architectural restructuring can lead to reconciliation and cultural preservation of heritage through a detailed case study of the transformations in Mizoram. Also, architectural propositions for further betterment of conflicted societies and for a harmonious and peaceful existence have been made.Keywords: reconciliation, urban planning, architectural restructuring, and cultural preservation.
The presentation´s goal is to provide an analytical framework to build bridges between disciplines concerned with the importance of the institutional structures and informal social mechanisms that underlie planning and intervention on the field for peacemaking and peace building efforts.
From an interdisciplinary perspective it seeks to draw attention on the intimate connections between physical and symbolic spaces through the study of cognitive territories of the populations involved in these processes. To think about institutional architectures and the informal mechanisms that can block or enhance territorial peace building is to embrace the multidimensionality of human experience and the crucial role of social learning.
Emphasis is placed on the importance of micro-‐political processes both for public and institutional management (Top -‐down) and communitary initiatives(Bottom -‐up). I outline some challenges that defy peace plans in a context like Colombia, marked by social and geographical diversity and heterogeneity.
Prison is not just a form of punishment. It is the material and symbolic construction of a space, which is many things at the same time: reflection and representation of other social spaces, of certain ideals and values -‐which the prison subverts and inverts. Prison is a certain space that nevertheless has no place, for it expresses a non-‐place – that of social and political exclusion, where the rule of law is suspended. Thus, prison is a space of contradictory meanings that, like a broken mirror, reflects, juxtaposes and recreates different features of society. This paper will reflect on the meanings and effects of prison, as a physical and social space, on those who have to endure it, and on a society that largely demands it or tolerates it. It will also discuss the role that prison plays –and may play-‐ in the construction of spaces and meanings, which in turn may enhance or hinder social reconciliation, which supposedly will arrive in a post-‐conflict stage.
Making ours the hypothesis that the principal function of urbanism
-‐-‐and by extension of architecture-‐-‐ is that of guaranteeing the conditions that make it possible for a city's public space to foment the creation of a social fabric, this paper makes manifest, when scrutinizing two recent paradigmatic examples of government-‐sponsored housing policies, that a responsible exercise of this discipline is non-‐existent in Colombia.
Using as illustration the history of urban development in Paris, as well as the political policies of the twentieth century that at present have a direct bearing on the social conflicts faced by French society, María Mercedes Jaramillo signals the probability of the current Colombian urban policies being the prelude to a future contrary to the search for peace and reconciliation within the framework of a post-‐ conflict scenario.
At the same time, and by bringing to mind the dissidence of Team X and its resistance to the CIAM proposals, in a revisionist context of the social sciences and the artistic avant-‐garde, she beckons Colombian architects to take a critical stance, stemming from an ethical and political commitment, so as to assume a role commensurate to the challenge we are up against.
Pueblo Bello is a town in the Urabá region of Antioquia , inhabited by about 2000 people, which from 1990 and for nearly twenty years suffered the worst effects of paramilitary and guerrilla violence. Enforced disappearances, massacres, the burning of buildings and people, and population displacement were common. In this dark picture is highlighted the disappearance of “the 43″₺, the largest forced disappearance of the history of Colombia and the reason why the nation was sanctioned by the Inter-‐American Court of Human Rights.
As part of the measures of collective reparations for victims with which it seeks to turn the page of violence, the community of Pueblo Bello defined the need for a building that would serve to regain and strengthen community life while honoring the memory of the 500 victims of the violence.
This building materialized in 2014 harboring an architectural program designed directly by the community in accordance with their wishes and needs. The design will start from the recognition of the place and its people, history, needs, way of living and future projection. The tour begins in a large ramp, the main access to a building elevated from the ground, which protects the building from flooding of the Mulatos river, and whose dimensions allow it to also be an outdoor theater. The large ramp leads, accompanied by a diagonal wall 8 meters high, to the House of Memory, a space full of symbols that pay tribute to the victims of violence: light management, change in flooring as a symbol of not belong to a place, a diagonal wall referring to the outburst of violence, the promenade through the “House of Memory” is obligatory to reach the rest of the building, because the future can not exist without knowing the past.
On leaving this first room the visitor will see the first of two courtyards in the building, an interior garden with a tree as a sign of rebirth of the community, linked directly to the open classroom, partially covered plaza that recognizes the ways of inhabiting a region where the social spaces of the house are in spaces that are both inside and outside; this “open classroom” is joined through the second courtyard to the “house of the future”, a multiple classroom for training, with an enclosure that consists of wooden shutters that allow the entry of wind while controlling light.
Thus, a building that mediates between the past and the future of the population, in the same way that the house of memory makes between the outer and community space, is making memory is built into a living fact, a space that not only provides healing, but demands of the people-‐watchers active participation in the construction of memory to retelling his past and his role in building the future.
This paper proposes two parts. The first part addresses what we mean by the construction of the public, and its relevance in the context of the ongoing Colombian peace process from architecture. The first part is a prelude to the theoretical foundations in the way we have understood and interpreted the problem of construction of the public. The second part is going to address the construction of the public from our practice as architects. This process has been under construction from the discussions that we have matured over ten years through a series of fundamental agreements we have found and defined in Architecture: the problem of common language, the technique, and the problem of representation.
The ongoing Colombian peace process that houses the call of this reflection, and precisely refers to the end of the armed conflict in Colombia, has among its multiple causes the problem of land tenure and conflict of integrating scales (national, regional political elites and local). Although these are conditions that should be viewed from a territorial problem on which have made great contributions Social Sciences in Colombia, our proposal addresses the construction of the public from the contemporary sense of plurality as has been proposed by Hannah Arendt. Hannah Arendt who has been one of the great political theorist of the twentieth century has the credit of reintroducing the Aristotelian political thought in modernity. The importance of Arendt’s thought is to recognize that politics is not just a problem of power structures, but is the problem of human coexistence, which takes place in public space, is in this sense that has an important meaning in the way we build the public space from architecture.
New beginnings rise where memory, forgetfulness and hope cross. Before thinking in reconciliation, you have to take into account several layers of personal stories and the process that wounds take to heal. The architecture of the domestic is where encouragement for resilience is suggested. The “domestic” as in a territory where not only daily and personal activities take place, but also where ghosts roam and the most private fears are hidden. This presentation intends to reflect on the need to rebuild and rethink the limits of the symbolic consideration of domestic space, through gestures that are expressed in the architectural elements of a room, and how they articulate a hinge that suggest the dual borders between the material and immaterial, movable property and property, and private and public.
The aims of this paper attempt to introduce “memory” as fundamental dimension in any architectural intentions. It is one of their primal principles. Memory is what sets the stage for connecting the past with the present and the future.
Memory is an intrinsic part of architecture, the main part, because without knowing where we've been, we have no idea where we are going, we have no guidance.
There is huge potential in architecture in its ability to tell people’s memories. Paul Auster, the writer, defines memory as "the space where something happens a second time."
The paper aims to show some architectural intentions that have been dealing with memory in order to represent a second chance to build some kind of narrative, where the guidelines are deliberately chosen and presented by architects and there are related to past times. This architectural intentions is concerned about recall of a local atmosphere, stories and identities, inside a physical space and within a group of people.
As a dark comedy in three parts, the author initiates a pilgrimage in the great architectural world of Bogotá resolved to study some of the salient features of the greatest city of Colombia under the magic influence of its vastness, guided by the compass of artists, architects, constructor moguls, urban curators, and humble and pretensions citizens navigating through all sorts of interests.
This reflection, part of a critical study of the commemorative architecture in societies victimized in the twentieth century, focuses on the design and function of this type of architecture today. Within the established categories for the classification of monuments and commemorative architecture, the interest is directed to the Museums and Memorials that privileges memory of his time and of society victimized by armed conflict and other types of violence, in a context that since its denial has reached its necessary recognition. In this regard, it explores the role of this architecture as symbolic reparation, by virtue of their role as cultural expression and guarantor of the social bond that unites a community, especially when it involves the symbolizing of the sharing mourning, according to the loss and death that it commemorates.
There are examples of architectures that transcend theirs geographical and historical location to become universal symbols of reconciliation and peace. One of them is the Alhambra of Granada: a mystified referent of reunion (World Heritage site in 1985), it has been scenery of tensions and conflicts between different civilizations and politic thoughts along its history and, as a result of the cultural synthesis that represents, it has became efficient instrument of mediation between nations. As well as architectonical reference for the redaction of the “Manifiesto de la Alhambra” (1953) –a collective document that pretended to restructure the architectonical situation of the nation after the devastating Spanish Civil War– the patrimonial complex has been a symbolic scenery of international agreements against Islamic terrorism (2005, 2014). The paper aims to analyze, from an historical and contemporary point of view and in a national and international scale–, the role of the Alhambra in reconciliation and peace-‐building processes.
The article is to propose a memorial village at the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) between South and North Korea that would contribute to communication, education, and reconciliation between the two Koreas. By designing a comfortable, sensitively-‐arranged housing complex for divided families to live and meet, along with a museum that memorializes war victims and draws attention to the forgotten sacrifice of the Korean people, the article expect to create a compelling vision for the North and South Korean governments to collaborate on the construction and administration of the village. As the history of autocratic regimes shows, greater interaction with the outside world through personal interaction, collaboration, and economic development greatly enhances prospects for improvements in human rights and democratization in the autocratic regime.
The DMZ has been a historically unique and untouched natural area since the Korean War, which involved a total of 63 countries. The proposed project will result ultimately in the transformation of the forsaken land of the DMZ into a village that accommodates cultural place. Taken together, the history museum, housing complex, and educational institution will provide an essential platform for refocusing international attention on the DMZ and, in an indirect way, lead to improvements in human rights and other quality-‐of-‐life concerns in North Korea. Instead of a simple economic or peace park development strategy, as proposed by the South Korean government, the DMZ should be understood as a historical memorial. The DMZ village will deliver meaningful communication, events, and education for humanitarian interaction between North Korea and the rest of the world.
We expect that the DMZ village will provide a convenient and comfortable living and gathering space for reunion events and for memorialization. Considering the age of the divided families, the imminent humanitarian need to bring people together is critical. Even as the first generation of divided families passes away, the DMZ village can continue as a special place for historical education, people-‐to-‐people exchange, and creative events. The architecture and urban planning at DMZ will memorialize the war fatalities and contribute to commemorating the shared tragedy experienced among North and South Koreans. This village will generate powerful public awareness of the war for a global audience. The DMZ, a unique site heavily armed and protected for a half century, could become not only a place of reconciliation and cooperation between North and South, but also a launching pad for greater openness, support for human rights, and democratization in North Korea.
Based on case studies in the West Bank and Colombia, this paper investigates the impacts of symbolic violence on conflict-‐affected populations and on their perception of place, lifestyle and culture. It also looks at the potential of space and place-‐making to enhance conflict transformation and resilience by strengthening the sense of place and symbolic reparation. In extreme environments, symbolic violence has become a means of actively imposing social or symbolic domination, which can be challenged by place-‐making and community-‐based peace-‐building initiatives.Key Words: Symbolic violence, symbolic reparation, resilience, conflict transformation, West Bank, Colombia
A post-‐war city is more than just a series of broken buildings, eviscerated roads and piles of rubble; it is comparable to a sequence of broken urban, social and in the case of Beirut, religious landscapes. ‘In the absence of a practice of intercultural dialogue, conflicts are insoluble […]’ (Sandercock 2003:87).
For the Lebanese government, the reconstruction of downtown Beirut seems to be a path towards healing the country and a way to reconstruct the social and religious landscape of a war torn city. The birth of a brand new city center branded as a ‘meeting point’ for all was supposed to suffice.
War-‐torn downtown Beirut is the starting point to find true places of exchange in a divided city in order to decipher the civic urbanity of a post-‐civil war sectarian capital in the shadow of its reconstruction.
From investigating the idea of ethnic and religious divisions, recognizing the presence of ‘Others’ in cities of plurality, while exploring what was accomplished in the Lebanese capital in terms of urban and social reconstruction, reviewing and deconstructing the available public places in the city, the quest for true places of exchange in post war Beirut is unforeseen.
The autarchy developed by traditional Amazonian societies after millennia of deep relationship with the forest express not only their intimate knowledge of plants and animals, it shows an economy of measure and an ethics born from the awareness of the richness and fragility of life, principles fundamental for the conservation of the Amazon. Cultural conservation is deeply linked to environmental conservation.
The Calanoa Project, set in the southernmost part of the Colombian Amazon, the Trapecio Amazónico, proposes de development of self-‐sufficient communities. A lab of applied creativity, explores the transformative power of art in individuals and society, and through that, the strengthening of ethnic identity, traditional knowledge, alternative community educational processes, and alternative sustainable economic practices. Villages imagined as collective dreams, defining their own future, chiselling their own culture, building peace.
The Calanoa Project is developing a collective art project, mural paintings in the village of Mocagua and a neighborhood in Leticia, photography with children, the recovery of ceramics and fibre arts traditions, as well as the exploration and practice of traditional songs and dances in the village of El Vergel.
An Amazonian village is deeply rooted in its landscape. The creation of a community-‐managed botanical garden has the intention of establishing a collection of Amazonian plants, a seed bank and a lab were traditional horticultural practices are recovered and innovative ones are explored, a cultural landscape that enhance the quality of life of people, as well as the wildlife around.
Beyond a network of buildings, a village is a cultural space. Each place, each culture, is a unique collective exercise of imagination, and as a space of society's creative interaction, is dynamic and in a permanent process of metamorphosis. Memory and change: each culture has to create from its deepest roots but with wings.
This paper attempts to address from a territorial perspective, the relationship between some urban conflicts and socio-‐spatial segregation, which is among much of the Colombian population. The urban environmental problem is not only reflected in the pollution of rivers, but has to do with the social structure that is built on that-‐do city. Environmental problems cannot be understood as not also analyze the way it has been weaving the network of economic and social within the city limits and close relationship with the agricultural rural environment and the ecosystem means relationships.
The discussion covered in post-‐conflict umbrella of sustainable development emerges from the concept of diversity, taking into account development initiatives, which can generate the ability to integrate economic processes with environmental services and community needs (Guimarães, Roberto P. 2001: 6), through inclusive processes that take into account the capital.
The profound globalization and worldwide changes, have highlighted the need to reorient the current styles of development towards sustainability. In this regard, it has been gaining momentum formulating long-‐term policies, which are based participatory process, consensus, articulators and integrated planning. Gradually they have been losing plans and programs centralized, isolated from the social and environmental reality of the country, on the basis of sectorial compartments defined to ensure the viability over time of human activities by the flow of resources and services environmental (Guimarães, ibid.)applied to populations without considering the conditions (physical, historical, social, economic, etc.) of each place.
The project “Local capacities for peace” (conducted by FIP, and the Colombian Home Office, with the support of the Peace and Reconciliation Foundation) was a participatory research carried out in 2014, in 46 municipalities from Colombia in the departments of Antioquia, Cauca, Caquetá, Chocó, Huila, and Norte de Santander, which have been historically affected by the armed conflict with the guerrilla group FARC-‐EP (The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army). The goal was to uncover the perceptions, ideas and demands from mayors, inhabitants and businesspeople around peace in their regions. Therefore, 357 in-‐depth interviews, 42 focus groups, 43 sub-‐regional inter-‐actor dialogues, 4 regional, and one national workshop were conducted. The conversations with regional leaders and key actors helped to understand the perceptions of the current status of the conflict and of the peace process, so as the the resources, challenges, and difficulties identified by the communities for the post-‐conflict phase.
In the regions studied, development and coexistence would be the manifestation of peace. Most of the post-‐conflict “dreams” documented in the communities referred to topics such as agricultural development, infrastructure and basic services. This indicates that peace is closely related to the State’s capacity to fulfill its fundamental obligations. Among the most recurrent visions for the post-‐conflict were: 1) the expansion of infrastructure and basic services in key aspects such as basic sanitation, housing, electricity, health, education, water supply for irrigation, and collection centers for agricultural products, among others. 2) The reconstruction and expansion of the road network, especially in rural and remote areas, in order to be able to mobilize, communicate, be in connection with the community life, and be able to bring agricultural products into urban areas. 3) The reconstruction of public spaces, many of which were devastated during the conflict, and remain as a living trace of it. The results of this study show significant challenges for architects and urban planners, who need to play a key role in building a stable and lasting peace in the country.
Three important components are mentioned below: 1. Spatial aspects, referring to territory; 2. psychosocial aspects related to the perception and assessment of the roles, interactions and activities and 3. Active involvement of the community in relation to cohabitation as a dynamic system of meaningful interactions and contribute to the quality of life and local human development, in principle. The empirical link has been primarily through a fieldwork in a rural area of the municipality of Buga (Colombia), which can be described as research -‐ intervention. The concept that articulates and gives a comprehensive look at the process carried out is that of social design which is defined and treated in the process as a basically constructed as component, but are taken into account previous working in the respective state of the art, they have emerged notions and unexpected relationships that often occur in qualitative studies. The possibility of approaches and nodes relationship between architecture, social psychology and knowledge of the community play a central role specifying the context in which you work is rural, pointing territorial aspects, without ruling out certain relationships with urban areas.
Ver Programa Simposio
KeyNotes Simposio DEARQ 2015